1: [ Zhi Zhi Introduction ]
Zhang Zhi, whose birth year is unknown, died about three years before the beginning of the reign of Emperor Han Xian (circa 192 AD), Yuanquan Town, Guazhou County, Jiuquan, Dunhuang (now in the old town of Sidaogou, Guazhou County, Jiuquan, Gansu). . Diligence is good in ancient times, but indifferent to official advance. The imperial court did not enlist the right to do so, when the people respected themselves as "Zhang Youdao". The good chapter of the cursive grass, after taking off the old habits, save the chapter of the grass and stippling paintings, waves, and become "now grass", Zhang Huaiyue's "Branch of the Book" Zhang Zhang cursive, cursive script is a god, saying: "You Shanzhang cursive book, give birth to dudu , Cui Yi. Dragon and leopard change, green out of blue. Created again in this grass, the sky is vertical, and the intention is super open, no matter what is wrong. If the Qing dynasty has a long source, the flow is infinite, and it will return to the cliff valley and let it be forged. " Call him "learning the methods of Cui (瑗) and Du (操), and thus changing them to the present grass, and refining it. The physical form of the word is made in one stroke, occasionally unconnected, and the blood is continuous, and The connected person, the Qi pulse runs through the interlaced line, "Wei Shujia of the Three Kingdoms Wei called him" grass saint. " Jin Wang Xunzhi's handwriting on Han and Wei, but pushed Zhong (繇) and Zhang (zhi), think the rest is not enough. The grass methods of Zhang Xu, Wei's Birthday, Suo Jing, Wang Xi's father and son, Zhang Xu, and Huai Su all originated from Boying. Yang Xinyun: "Zhang Zhi, the King Elephant, Zhong Yan, Suo Jing, the time" Book Holy ", but Zhang Jin bones and muscles, the crown of the princes of the German crown, Si is Dangyi."
[ Zhang Zhi's works ]
There are two predecessor scholars of Wang Shuzhi, the "Book Holy": one is Cao Wei's Zhong Yan, and the other is Zhang Zhi from the Eastern Han Dynasty. He said: "My book is better than Zhong, Zhang, Zhong Dang resists, or is overdone; Zhang Cao still behaves like a wild goose. However, Zhang is skilled, the water in the pond is exhausted, and if this is the case, it may not be thanked." (See Sun Guoting's "Book Book") "Dan" means indulgence, especially hobbies. Even the capital of Wang Xi is sighing as if he can see Zhang Zhi's love of calligraphy.
Two: [ Introduction to Zhang Xu ]
Zhang Xu (year of birth and death is unknown), Tang Dynasty calligrapher.
The first official is Changshu Captain, the post-ranking officer is Jin Wu Chang Shi, and he is called "Zhang Chang Shi". His mother Lu was the niece of the early Tang scholar Lu Cambodia, the granddaughter of Yu Shinan.
Zhang Xu is unrestrained, open-minded, distinguished, brilliant, and knowledgeable. Friendship with Li Bai and He Zhizhang, Du Fu included them in the "Eight Immortals in Drink". 然后落笔成书，甚至以头发蘸墨书写，故又有“张颠”的雅称。 He is a cursive man with a unique personality. Because he is often drunk, he calls and walks away, then writes into a book, and even writes with his hair dipped in ink. Hou Huaisu inherited and developed his style of writing, which was also named after cursive script, and was called "disruptive drunk."
Zhang Xu has a bold personality and a habit of drinking. He often dances after getting drunk, and then returns to the table with a pen and ink. Some people said that he was rude and gave him a nickname of Zhang Qian. 启发写字。 In fact, he is very careful, he thinks that everything touched in daily life can inspire writing. Occasionally, I melted in my calligraphy. At that time, as long as he received his piece of paper, he regarded it as a treasure and hereditary.
Zhang Xu's calligraphy began in Zhang Zhi and Er Wang all the way, with cursive writing the highest achievement.
History called "grass saint". He himself is proud of inheriting the tradition of the "Two Kings", and he has the words and methods. On the other hand, he has imitated the art of Zhang Zhi's cursive calligraphy, creating a dashing and unpredictable wild grass. 而得笔法之意；在河南邺县时爱看公孙大娘舞西河剑器，并因此而得草书之神。 According to legend, he saw the princess arguing with the husband, and he heard the meaning of writing; when he was in Yixian County, Henan, he loved to watch Gongsun Auntie dance Xixi sword, and he got the cursive god. Yan Zhenqing resigned twice to ask him for his strokes. 如痴，如癫如狂。 Zhang Xu is a pure artist. He pours his emotions between stippling, and if no one is there, he is as drunk as he is crazy. 实、日月列星、风雨水火、雷霆霹雳、歌舞战斗、天地事物之变，可喜可愕，一寓于书，故旭之书，变动犹鬼神，不可端倪，以此终其身而名后世。”熊秉明《中国书法理论体系》说：“张 旭是中国书法史上一个极重要的人物。他创造的狂草向自由表现方向发展的一个极限，若更自由，文字将不可辨读，书法也就成了抽象点泼的绘画了。” Tang Hanyu praised it in "The Preface to Sending High Leisure People": "happy, embarrassed, poor, sad, joyful, resentful, admired, drunk, bored, unfair, moving, and cursive. Look at the things, see the mountains and valleys, birds, beasts, fishes, flowers and plants , sun, moon, stars, storms, water, fire, thunder and thunder, singing and dancing, and changes in heaven and earth. The change of the ghosts and ghosts can't be ignored, so that they will be known for their future generations. "Xiong Bingming" Chinese Calligraphy Theory System "said:" Zhang Xu is a very important figure in the history of Chinese calligraphy. The wild grass he created has developed in the direction of free expression. At the limit, if it is more free, the text will be unreadable, and calligraphy will become an abstract and splashy painting. "
After Zhang Xu's death, everyone missed him. For example, after Du Fu entered Shu, he saw Zhang Xu's remnant ink, and was extremely sad. He wrote a "Cursor of Zhang Xu's Cursive Painting" in the palace, saying in his poem: The Sri Lankan people have died of clouds, and the secret of Cao Sheng is rare. He is annoyed at the sight and is stunned. 赠张旭》一诗中说：露顶据胡床，长叫三五声。 In a poem entitled " Gift Zhang Xu", Li Xun said: Lu Ding, according to Hu bed, called three or five times. Xinglai sprinkled the wall, waving like a shooting star. You can see the deep respect for Zhang Xu. In order to commemorate Zhang Xu, the people of Changshu still have a "Drunk Captain Street" near the east gate square tower in the city. 时，城内还曾建有“草圣祠”，祠内的一副楹联：“书道入神明，落纸云烟，今古竞传八法；酒狂称草圣，满堂风雨，岁时宜奠三杯”，表达了邑人对这位草书之圣的深深崇敬。 In the old days , there was also a "grass shrine" in the city. A couplet in the shrine: "Books enter into the gods, falling clouds of paper, and ancient ways of spreading eight methods; wine madness is called the grass saint, and it is full of wind and rain. "Three cups" expresses the deep respect of this cursive holy man. 的池塘也曾长期保留，称为“洗砚池”。 The pond where Zhang Xu washed his brushes was also kept for a long time, which is called "washing pond". Suzhou will build the Tang Xucao Shrine in the Tang Dynasty. 成为国内外文人雅士笔会场所。 It is located on the west side of Tang Yin's tomb. All are built with ancient building materials. The grass sacred shrine was built into a building similar to the Lanting Pavilion in Shaoxing, Zhejiang province. It exhibited Zhang Xu's calligraphy art achievements, and became a place for scholars at home and abroad. The people of Suzhou are proud of calligrapher Zhang Xu. Cao Sheng Zhang Xu is also the pride and glory of the Chinese nation.
[ Zhang Xu's main works ]
"Four Ancient Poems"
Zhang Xu's calligraphy skills are profound, and he has created a model of crazy cursive style with his ingenious strokes and unrestrained temperament. 古诗共4首（见图，局部）。 Zhang Xu wrote four ancient poems of two literary heroes Xie Lingyun and Yu Xin during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties in a unique cursive script style (figure, part). The writing of the work is top-notch, falling down, and the strokes are gentle and gentle, rushing slowly and slowly in a comfortable rhythm. His words are unrestrained and unrestrained, his strokes are continuous, and there is a danger of eaves walking. 即来，一气呵成，给人以痛快淋漓之感。 The beauty of cursive writing actually lies in the fact that it is ready to be done in one go and gives people a sense of happiness. Collection of this work is the Liaoning Provincial Museum.
The Cursive Heart Sutra
录，其“心经、肚痛帖、千文断碑”条下注“均张旭草书，无年月”，并称“右三石均在西安碑林”。 Zhang Xu's "Cursive Heart Sutra" is written in "Inscriptions on Tablets", and his "Tang Cao Xin Jing" inscription reads Zhang Xu. Previously, in the stele forest, there was "Cursor Heart Sutra" moved by the prefect Sun Sunren from Baita Temple during the Ming Chenghua years, and "Guanzhong" "Study of Jinshi Writings" is recorded for both types of cursive script "Heart Sutra" , and its "Heart Sutra, Abdominal Pain Post, Thousands of Wenbei Tablets" bet "All Zhang Xu cursive, no years", and said "the right three stones are in Forest of Steles in Xi'an ". 了。 Zhang Xu's "Book of Cursive Hearts" appeared at the latest in the Three Years of the Republic of China (1914) .
"Pain pain post"
"Body Pain Post": Single-engraved post. No money. This post uses a sting to make the turn, rigid and soft, helpless, ever-changing, elegant and elegant. The full post is only 30 words, and it is written in a pervasive style, and the charm is generated.
Ming Wang Shizhen's post cloud: "Zhang Changshi's" Body Pain Post "and" Thousand Characters Wen "are a few lines.
"Lang Guan Shi Zhu Ji"
The full name "Preface to the Official Book of Langshu in Shangshu Province" was written by Chen Jiuyan of the Tang Dynasty and written by Zhang Xu. "Lang Guan Shi Zhu Ji" is the most reliable authenticity of Zhang Xu, which was passed down from the original Shi Jiuyu, a solitary copy of Zhang Xulang's official Shi Zhu. It has always been highly rated. This stone song has been engraved. The font is based on Ouyang Xun and Yu Shinan's style, dignified and rigorous, without losing the rules, showing the subtlety of regular script. 字虽然奇怪百出，而求其源流，无一点画不该规矩者。”此序楷势精劲凝重，法度森严，雍容闲雅兼而有之，是张旭存世的重要楷书作品。 "Xuanhe Book Book" commented: "The name is based on the grass, and the lowercase line does not diminish the cursiveness of the cursive characters. Although the cursive characters are strange, but seek its source, no one should draw the rules. Preface Kai Kai is a dignified and dignified style, with strict laws, and a combination of grace and leisure. It is an important regular script work of Zhang Xucunshi.